Fresh Water

Some readers in response to the webpage on the Killer Crash don’t care so much about the past. What impacts our lives now and moving forward. To meet this point of curiosity, this page exposes the presence of an untapped source of fresh water under Earth’s crust. “Water scarcity already affects every continent. Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one-fifth of the world’s population, live in areas of physical scarcity, and 500 million people are approaching this situation. Another 1.6 billion people, or almost one quarter of the world’s population, face economic water shortage (where countries lack the necessary infrastructure to take water from rivers and aquifers).” —United Nations page on water scarcity.

Unlike the standard model for how the Solar System formed, Mass Vortex Theory explains that planets form due to cyclonic-separation. Understanding this cyclonic separation method of planet formation is a prerequisite to understanding this article.

When a protoplanet exits the vortex and falls into an orbit around the center, it goes from no spin (irrotational flow) to spin.

Spin causes a changing magnetic flux, and this creates an electric field.

The iron-heart of a protoplanet is ferromagnetic, which means that each atom has a tiny magnetic field. In cold temperatures, these fields line up without needing an external magnetic field. With very little heat so far in the Vortex, the iron-heart is a big magnet.

Spin causes an electric field which in turn causes the formation of molecular bonds.

When atoms are in a gas – as they are in a protoplanet – the negative charge of their electrons dominates their interaction so that they repel each other, before they can get close. At the smaller atomic level, most atoms have some slight imbalance of charge due to the distribution of electrons so that an atom is somewhat like an electric dipole. These dipoles will align in the presence of an electric field. When this happens, the negatively charged area of one atom can line up with the positively charged area of another atom. In this case, they will overcome their natural barriers, getting closer, then bond.

The formation of molecules means that the space between atoms is suddenly reduced – drastically. Spin causes the gases to compact:
From: protoplanet; To: planet with core and layers
We will refer to this process as compaction.

 

Some visual support for compaction

Electric Field

Given that the compaction happens due to an electric field, we should find that the compaction at the poles is not smoothly consistent with the rest of the planet. This is because the electric field at the poles is directed differently from the rest of the planet. And this is indeed what we see for planets where we can see the crust at the poles. Images for Mercury and Mars are shown to the right.


Planet Observations

During compaction, the heaviest molecules with the least space between atoms compact the most rapidly and retain the most heat. Thus, the metal atoms of the iron-heart compact the most rapidly and become the super-heated core. Sequentially next, the heavy rock and mineral atoms compact rapidly to form the molten mantle. The lighter molecules of the crust compact less rapidly around the mantle. Then, the lightest atoms and molecules that form the atmosphere are the outermost layer.

The different speed of compaction provides an opportunity for hot vapor – like steam from a hot cup of tea – to rise out, away from a newly compacted layer. The vapor moves radially out from the compacted layer. As it does, it gets trapped when the next layer compacts on top of it, which then causes the steam to condense due to pressure. For Earth, and many planets, the vapor is steam; because hydrogen is ubiquitous throughout the universe being the most common element, and oxygen is the third most common element. (Water is a molecule H2O composed of 2 hydrogen atoms plus one oxygen atom.)

Scientists know that there is a discontinuity layer between the crust and the mantle due to seismic waves. It is called the Mohorovičić Discontinuity, or simply the Moho. The name for the boundary between the mantle and the core is the Gutenberg Discontinuity.

Layers of the Earth, with the Moho noted between the crust and the mantle

Mass Vortex Theory makes the prediction that the Moho is composed of water and sediment. This is because steam collected between the mantle and crust when Earth first formed. The pressure when the crust compacted on top of the steam caused the steam to condense.

Drilling to the Moho could supply fresh water to regions that need it. Currently, this seems to require a feat of impossible engineering; however, history teaches us that amazing projects can be accomplished when society is determined and funds it. [Consider the Gotthard Base Tunnel under the Alps, which required drilling 57 km through solid rock.] The greatest vertical depth drilled is the Kola Borehole (an expensive, useful, project of the former Soviet Union). The problem it revealed is that heat increases with depth, to such a point that the tools used to do the drilling become deformed and ineffective. The temperature at the Kola Borehole’s deepest depth was reported to be 356 degrees Fahrenheit (453 deg. K); “With the projected further increase in temperature with increasing depth, drilling to 15,000 m (49,000 ft) would have meant working at a temperature of 300 °C (570 °F)” –Wikipedia.

Consequently, it makes sense to pair engineering for geothermal energy extraction with engineering for water extraction. Could air-cooled shafts be drilled in parallel around the primary drill hole to manage the heat? Also, drilling technology has greatly improved since 1989 when the decision to stop drilling the Kola Borehole was made. The most thin crust is under the oceans; but the drilling cost in the ocean is very high and distribution would be more costly also.

California and regions in the southwest US need water. Land near the Salton Sea would provide a low point for drilling and then distributing water. The crust is about 22 km at this location, whereas most continental crust is 24-40 km. After developing the first location in the US, with all the problem-solving that would be needed, governments and investors could determine other preferred drilling locations and replicate the project.