The Christian Science Monitor Weekly reported in its October 5, 2015 edition that Enceladus, a moon of Saturn has an ice layer with a global ocean on the surface of a rocky sphere, under the ice. NASA also believes that Jupiter’s moon Europa has the same type of layers. This is explained by Mass Vortex Theory because moons have a mechanism of formation that is similar to planets. In the case of a moon, however, the planet’s magnetic field overpowers the moon’s magnetic field. The interaction between these two magnetic fields, causes a mechanical force that: a) stops the moon from spinning and b) repels the moon from it’s location to further away where it is finally stopped by the planet’s gravity. [This type of repulsive mechanical force between two objects with parallel magnetic fields is part of known physics.]

Sun-First Theory, which is the current standard theory, asserts that planets and moons are formed from dust, molecules and grains orbiting the Sun after it ignites. Even though they all have the same angular momentum (like asteroids in the asteroid belt), they somehow hit each other and get stuck together to form rocks. Even though rocks usually have elastic collisions (i.e., they bounce off each other), the idea is that somehow small rocks have inelastic collisions leading to ever bigger rocks until a) the rocks get very big, and b) they get molten (due to the heat of impacts alone) and spherical (due to size). Thus, part of the definition of a planet is that the “object” cleared its orbit (or in other words, it “removed debris and small objects from the area around its orbit”)—see previous post: Proposed Definition of a Planet. How does this theory of rock collisions explain the layered structure of Enceladus and Europa, with global oceans and ice layers?


Image credit: NASA and JPL